A Case of HIV Seroconversion Presenting Similarly to Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

NCJ_cover.jpgBy Heather VanDongen-Trimmer, Kumar Sannagowdara, Binod Balakrishnan, Raquel Farias-Moeller

First Online: 13 August 2019

Continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring is recommended in patients with acute supratentorial brain injury and altered mental status, such as patients with encephalitis. This practice may help facilitate prompt treatment of non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus as well as assess the severity of encephalopathy [1]. As more critically ill patients with encephalopathy are being monitored with cEEG, experience is gained in recognizing EEG background patterns that can aid in prognostication, prediction of illness trajectory, and in a few occasions as biomarkers for specific disease processes [1].

Patients with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) usually present with amnesia, seizures, psychiatric symptoms, dyskinesias, and autonomic dysfunction. Since the discovery of this antibody-mediated encephalitis in 2005 [2, 3], significant advances have been made in the description of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, biomarkers, and...

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