A Prospective Observational Feasibility Study of Jugular Bulb Microdialysis in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

  
NCJ_cover.jpgBy Axel Forsse, Troels Halfeld Nielsen, Simon Mølstrøm, Jacob Hjelmborg, Kasper Stokbro Nielsen, Kevin Hebøll Nygaard, Sibel Yilmaz, Carl-Henrik Nordström & Frantz Rom Poulsen

First Online: 16 December 2019

Background
Cerebral metabolic perturbations are common in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Monitoring cerebral metabolism with intracerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows early detection of secondary injury and may guide decisions on neurocritical care interventions, affecting outcome. However, CMD is a regional measuring technique that is influenced by proximity to focal lesions. Continuous microdialysis of the cerebral venous drainage may provide information on global cerebral metabolism relevant for the care of aSAH patients. This observational study aimed to explore the feasibility of jugular bulb microdialysis (JBMD) in aSAH and describe the output characteristics in relation to conventional multimodal monitoring.

Methods
Patients with severe aSAH were included at admission or after in-house deterioration when local clinical guidelines prompted extended multimodal monitoring. Non-dominant frontal CMD, intracranial pressure (ICP), partial brain tissue oxygenation pressure (PbtO2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were recorded every hour. The dominant jugular vein was accessed by retrograde insertion of a microdialysis catheter with the tip placed in the jugular bulb under ultrasound guidance. Glucose, lactate, pyruvate, lactate/pyruvate ratio, glycerol, and glutamate were studied for correlation to intracranial measurements. Modified Rankin scale was assessed at 6 months.

Results
Twelve adult aSAH patients were monitored during a mean 4.2 ± 2.6 days yielding 22,041 data points for analysis. No complications related to JBMD were observed. Moderate or strong significant monotonic CMD-to-JBMD correlations were observed most often for glucose (7 patients), followed by lactate (5 patients), and pyruvate, glycerol, and glutamate (3 patients). Moderate correlation for lactate/pyruvate ratio was only seen in one patient. Analysis of critical periods defined by ICP > 20, CPP < 65, or PbtO2 < 15 revealed a tendency toward stronger CMD-to-JBMD associations in patients with many or long critical periods. Possible time lags between CMD and JBMD measurements were only identified in 6 out of 60 patient variables. With the exception of pyruvate, a dichotomized outcome was associated with similar metabolite patterns in JBMD and CMD. A nonsignificant tendency toward greater differences between outcome groups was seen in JBMD.

Conclusions
Continuous microdialysis monitoring of the cerebral drainage in the jugular bulb is feasible and safe. JBMD-to-CMD correlation is influenced by the type of metabolite measured, with glucose and lactate displaying the strongest associations. JBMD lactate correlated more often than CMD lactate to CPP, implying utility for detection of global cerebral metabolic perturbations. Studies comparing JBMD to other global measures of cerebral metabolism, e.g., PET CT or Xenon CT, are warranted.

Read full article.

#OriginalWork