Scoping Review and Commentary on Prognostication for Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Advances in Surgical Techniques

  
NCJ_cover.jpgBy Stephanie Zyck, Lydia Du, Grahame Gould, Julius Gene Latorre, Timothy Beutler, Alexa Bodman & Satish Krishnamurthy

First Online: 08 April 2020

Introduction
The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score provides an estimate of 30-day mortality for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage in order to guide research protocols and clinical decision making. Several variations of such scoring systems have attempted to optimize its prognostic value. More recently, minimally invasive surgical techniques are increasingly being used with promising results. As more patients become candidates for surgical intervention, there is a need to re-discuss the best methods for predicting outcomes with or without surgical intervention.

Methods
We systematically performed a scoping review with a comprehensive literature search by two independent reviewers using the PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles pertaining to the “intracerebral hemorrhage score.” Relevant articles were selected for analysis and discussion of potential modifications to account for increasing surgical indications.

Results
A total of 64 articles were reviewed in depth and identified 37 clinical grading scales for prognostication of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. The original ICH score remains the most widely used and validated. Various authors proposed modifications for improved prognostic accuracy, though no single scale showed consistent superiority. Most recently, scales to account for advances in surgical techniques have been developed but lack external validation.

Conclusion
We provide the most comprehensive review to date of prognostic grading scales for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Current prognostic tools for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage remain limited and may overestimate risk of a poor outcome. As minimally invasive surgical techniques are developed, prognostic scales should account for surgical candidacy and outcomes.

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