Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis is Associated with Worsening Cerebral Edema and Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage


By Alireza Shirazian, Andres F. Peralta-Cuervo, Maria P. Aguilera-Pena, Louis Cannizzaro, Vi Tran, Doan Nguyen & Ifeanyi Iwuchukwu

First Online: 05 January 2021


We postulated that renal replacement therapy (RRT) in ICH patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased frequency and size of perihematomal edema (PHE) expansion and worse patient outcomes.


The Get With the Guidelines-Stroke Registry was queried for all patients admitted with ICH (N = 1089). Secondary causes, brainstem ICH, and initial HV < 7 cc were excluded. We identified patients with advanced CKD with and without RRT following admission for ICH. ABC/2 formula was used to measure hematoma volume (HV) and PHE. Patient outcomes were 30-day mortality, 90-day modified Rankin Scale score, and discharge disposition. We used propensity scores and optimal matching to adjust for multiple covariates.


At 48 h post-ICH, PHE expansion was a significant predictor of poor patient outcomes in our cohort. Patients with CKD who received sustained low-efficacy dialysis (SLED) treatment had larger 48 h PHE growth compared to both untreated CKD group (average treatment effect (ATE), 11.5; 95% CI, 4.9–18.1; p < 0.01) and all untreated patients (ATE, 7.43; 95% CI, 4.7–10.2; p < 0.01). Moreover, patients with RRT had significantly worse functional and mortality outcomes.


SLED treatment in ICH patients with CKD was associated with significant increase in rate and frequency of PHE expansion. Absolute increase in PHE during 48-h post-ICH was associated with increased mortality and worse functional outcomes. Further prospective and multicenter evaluation is needed to differentiate the effects of RRT on hematoma dynamics and patient outcomes from those attributed to CKD.

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