Secondary Hematoma Evacuation and Outcome After Initial Conservative Approach for Patients with Cerebellar Hematoma Larger than 3 cm

  
By Sanjula D. Singh, Floris H. B. M. Schreuder, Koen M. van Nieuwenhuizen, Wilmar M. Jolink, Jasper R. Senff, Joshua N. Goldstein, Jeroen Boogaarts, Catharina J. M. Klijn, Gabriel J. E. Rinkel & H. Bart Brouwers
First Online: 02 March 2021

Background
In patients with spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) guidelines advocate evacuation when the hematoma diameter is > 3 cm. We studied outcome in patients with cerebellar ICH > 3 cm who did not undergo immediate hematoma evacuation.

Methods
We included consecutive patients with cerebellar ICH > 3 cm at two academic hospitals between 2008 and 2017. Patients who died < 24 h (h) were excluded because of probable confounding by indication. We determined patient characteristics, hematoma volumes, EVD placement, secondary hematoma evacuation, in-hospital and 3-month case-fatality, and functional outcome.

Results
Of 130 patients with cerebellar ICH, 98 (77%) had a hematoma > 3 cm of whom 22 (23%) died < 24 h and 28 (29%) underwent hematoma evacuation < 24 h. Thus, 48 patients were initially treated conservatively (mean age 70 ± 13, 24 (50%) female). Of these 48 patients, 7 (15%) underwent secondary hematoma evacuation > 24 h, of whom 1 (14%) had received an EVD < 24 h. Five others also received an EVD < 24 h without subsequent hematoma evacuation. Of the 41 patients without secondary hematoma evacuation, 11 (28%) died and 20 (51%) had a favorable outcome (mRS of 0–3) at 3 months. The 7 patients who underwent secondary hematoma evacuation had a decrease in GCS score of at least two points prior to surgery; two (29%) had deceased at 3 months; and 5 (71%) had a good functional outcome (mRS 0–3).

Conclusions
While cerebellar ICH > 3 cm is often considered an indication for immediate hematoma evacuation, there may be a subgroup of patients in whom surgery can be safely deferred. Further data are needed to assess the optimal timing and indications of surgical treatment in these patients.

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