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Association of Dose of Intracranial Hypertension with Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

  
By Giorgia Carra, Francesca Elli, Bogdan Ianosi, Marine Flechet, Lukas Huber, Verena Rass, Bart Depreitere, Fabian Güiza, Geert Meyfroidt, Giuseppe Citerio & Raimund Helbok
First online: 12 April 2021

Background
In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) the burden of intracranial pressure (ICP) and its contribution to outcomes remains unclear. In this multicenter study, the independent association between intensity and duration, or “dose,” of episodes of intracranial hypertension and 12-month neurological outcomes was investigated.

Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of multicenter prospectively collected data of 98 adult patients with aSAH amendable to treatment. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit of two European centers (Medical University of Innsbruck [Austria] and San Gerardo University Hospital of Monza [Italy]) from 2009 to 2013. The dose of intracranial hypertension was visualized. The obtained visualizations allowed us to investigate the association between intensity and duration of episodes of intracranial hypertension and the 12-month neurological outcomes of the patients, assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Score. The independent association between the cumulative dose of intracranial hypertension and outcome for each patient was investigated by using multivariable logistic regression models corrected for age, occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia, and the Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission.

Results
The combination of duration and intensity defined the tolerance to intracranial hypertension for the two cohorts of patients. A semiexponential transition divided ICP doses that were associated with better outcomes (in blue) with ICP doses associated with worse outcomes (in red). In addition, in both cohorts, an independent association was found between the cumulative time that the patient experienced ICP doses in the red area and long-term neurological outcomes. The ICP pressure–time burden was a stronger predictor of outcomes than the cumulative time spent by the patients with an ICP greater than 20 mmHg.

Conclusions
In two cohorts of patients with aSAH, an association between duration and intensity of episodes of elevated ICP and 12-month neurological outcomes could be demonstrated and was visualized in a color-coded plot.

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